Conservation Quality Picture Framing since 1994

Interior Angle Picture framing services was established by father and daughter, Richard & Soo Turner in Chelmsford, Essex. Providing quality framing advice both for protective and aesthetic reasons.

Offering framing services from both Galleries, Shenfield and Chelmsford.

All work is undertaken by the highly experienced team located in the workshop adjoining the Chelmsford Gallery space.

For best results we recommend that you bring your artworks to us so we can discuss your requirements and give you the best advice.

Our current lead time is 15 working days.

We provide a wide range of framing services, mirrors, acrylic box frames, oversize, museum standard framing, hand finished frames, and specialist design services.

Services Include:  Picture Frames | Mirrors | Restoration & Conservation framing

Frequently asked questions about framing & mounting…

What is the cockling defect in paper?

Cockling is planar distortion of paper that appears as wrinkles or ridges. Cockle wrinkles are created in the dryer section as the sheet shrinks under unrestricted drying conditions. The sheet shrinks more in the cross direction due to fiber alignment and produces cockle wrinkles oriented in the machine direction.

What causes paper cockling?

Paper, by its very nature, is an absorptive medium. In high humidity, paper absorbs moisture from the atmosphere, causing it to swell and grow in all three dimensions. This creates the waviness or wrinkling referred to as “cockling

What does cockling mean in printing?

Cockling, plain and simple, is the distortion of paper by the way of ripples or wrinkles in areas of high ink coverage.

Generally speaking, cockling is the result of paper responding to changes in the relative humidity of its environment.

The paper, in trying to establish dynamic equilibrium with the RH in the air surrounding it, will shed moisture if the air is drier than itself, and will absorb moisture if the surrounding air is moister.

The fibres in the paper, may, for any number of reasons, swell or shrink at different rates and at different amounts i.e. there is a contraction-expansion differential. Consequently, buckling may occur.

This condition may be exacerbated by bad framing technique e.g. incorrect hinging materials; too wet hinging paste; self adhesive tape; inappropriate hinge material; full-length taping; all-round taping; stretched taping; spraying the verso with water; inappropriate spacing of the hinges; inappropriate glue/paste; tight mat package, etc., etc.

Outside factors may also be contributory e.g. outside-wall hanging.

Serious cockling may create permanent damage if the paper has not been hung correctly. If it has been full-length taped along its upper edge to the verso of the mountboard, this can cause a tear in the paper because the paper has not been allowed to move freely within the frame.

Don’t lose sleep over gentle cockling.